I E I
Information - Energy - Innovation
Assessment and Appraisal
Timetable of Renovation
Renovation of Building Exterior
Renovation of Building Interior
Appraisal of Condition of Building after Renovation
Influence of Resident on Energy and Water Use
Demonstration and Research
1. 1 The Existence of Mankind and his Well Being is Dependent on
the Supply of Energy
Through the development of housing, man has freed himself from the arbitrary forces
of nature such as cold, dampness, and wind. He lives in a heated, lighted,
climate-controlled environment protected from the unpredictable whims of Mother Nature.
Increasing demand on the functionality of living space and the inefficiency of plumbing
and sanitation systems have led to great consumption of valuable natural resources and
Energy is the ability to perform a task. Movement and heat are forms of energy. Physical
knowledge imparts us with a great quantity of knowledge of energy. Innovative steps have
lead to diverse uses of energy in the areas of industry, transportation, and living.
Information Energy Innovation (IEI) provides examples of efficient energy usage and
healthy living environments in buildings. This presentation is also available in video and
brochure form. Please refer to the information found at the end of this presentation for
1. 2 The Earth and Its Resources
||Even with the aid of solar energy, it took the Earth 500 million years to
produce the fossil fuels coal, oil, and natural gas. In just a few centuries, man has
depleted the supply of fossil fuels in spite of a lack of adequate replacements.Over 50
percent of the energy from coal, oil, and natural gas are used for heating homes and
water. The results of this usage are harmful gasses such as carbon dioxide, sulfur
dioxide, and nitric oxide.
Only through the energy crisis of 1973 did the awareness spread that oil, natural gas, and
coal are natural treasures and must be used responsibly. The crisis spurred an increase in
the use of solar power and energy-efficient housing.
The limited nature of the Earth's energy reserves requires innovative treatment. Energy
requirements can be significantly reduced through technical and architectural measures.
Over ninety percent of all building structures in Germany do not fulfill regulatory
insulation code requirements.
1. 3 Energy and Ecology
|An all-inclusive renovation and complete examination of a building encompasses
the areas of energy conservation, cost savings, environmental conservation, and healthy
1. 4 Efficient Energy Use and Healthy Living
It required years for architects, industry experts, and scientists to plan and
construct a model of an energy efficient and health enhancing building.
A 60-year-old building which met all potential requirements for complete renovation was
used. The key selection criteria were the building's exorbitant use of energy and the
unhealthy existence of mold and spores caused by moisture in the walls.
The goal of the renovation was to reduce the primary energy use to one-tenth of its
previous level and use ecological means to create a healthy living atmosphere.
Energy conservation is achieved through the renovation of the building
materials and the use of insulation, fuel burning techniches, solar power and air
circulation. The described renovation serves as an example for majority of the renovation
2 Renovation and Appraisal of Construction Materials
2. 1 Building Exterior
Energy consumption data and thermographic measurements give us the first
succinct indication about building renovation measures which will be required.
Before beginning the renovation, it is necessary to conduct a complete current state
analysis and assessment in order to economically justify the costs associated with the
A superficial renovation will waste time and effort. The building's exterior is the
starting point of the evaluation.
The building's foundation and basement masonry is exposed to view. In general, a large
proportion of basement foundations demonstrate inadequacies in the outer walls. Once the
foundation walls have been exposed, it is plain to see that water can seep through any
cracks in the foundation into the building. Tree and other plant roots have also
penetrated the foundation. Rainwater collected along the outer wall and seeped to the
bottom of the foundation where it , along with other standing water, seeped through the
masonry and accumulated in the basement rooms.
The foundation of the building is made of quarry rock.
Because of the solid, tight structure of the quarry rock, only surface cracks are visible.
Moisture has worked itself deep into the foundation through cracks in the mortar and
spaces where the mortar has broken away. Winter cold causes the moisture in the cracks to
freeze, which weakens the stonework and reduces its ability to bear weight.
The external stonework of the first and second floors consists of a double layer of
brickwork. The South and East facades are plastered with a lime cement mortar, upon which
natural stone gravel has been applied. The plaster is quite dirty. Uneven settling of the
base of the foundation caused cracks running from the stone base along the ground level to
the window sills.
The North and West facades are slated. The structure of the slate has been considerably
damaged by rain, frost and air pollutants. Moisture has seeped through the slate into the
underlying wood structure, which has rotted through in numerous places. The moisture has
seeped further into the stonework and penetrated the inner plaster and the wall paper.
Renovation of the slate facade doesn't make any sense.
The windows in the building clearly show evidence of sub-professional installation and
insufficient and improper care, which resulted in rotting. Paint has partially peeled off.
Water has seeped in through the cracked layers of paint, causing further rotting of the
window wood in many places
The roof has been especially exposed to weather damaging. The tin sheet metal is rusted
through in places, allowing water to seep into the underlying construction of the roof,
the walls, and the ceiling.
The chimney is only partly plastered and there are many cracks in the stone work. The
water seal between the chimney and the tin sheet metal roof leaks. Subsequently moisture
penetrates the building in these places, causing mold and rotting near the stones and the
The walkway and ledges around the gable are made from various materials. The sheet metal
profile is rusted through and the support capacity of the wooden body is minimal because
The joints between the roof structure and the roof's sheet metal and the overhang of the
house doors show considerable damage and leakage, which have allowed moisture to penetrate
into the building, causing further damage.
|Der Dachstuhl vor der Sanierung
||und nach der Sanierung
2. 2 Interior - Assessment and Appraisal
|The diagram shows that water has seeped into the basement. The interior
plaster in the wall has separated itself from the masonry. Bubbling and spoilage has
caused the near disintegration of the integrity interior plaster.
|The water and moisture seepage has caused rust on metal parts,
wood rot in the window frames and doors, and mold and spores in the basement and ground
floor to form.
The high level of humidity in the basement has permeated the surrounding walls, ceilings,
and the living area on the ground level.
The basement and ground floor stairways are made of wood and have been directly exposed to
the humidity from the basement. Every part of the stairs, as well as wooden doors and
hallways on each floor have been weakened so much by wood worms that they must be
The attic had been partially renovated so that it could be used as a living space. The
surrounding walls, ceiling and floor no longer meet current construction codes.
The roof slopes are resting on rafters and in between is 11.5 centimeters of pumice. The
insulation is insufficient.
The rafters are in good condition and will be kept. The top-most roof tiles near the
chimney will be replaced. Only the roof trusses, which were weakened by wood worms in
certain places, must be partially replaced.
The unfinished section of the attic could be used as a living area.
One of the two existing chimneys is not repairable and must be torn out.
2. 3 Timetable of Renovation
A comprehensive universal renovation should also examine the possibility of
creating additional living and functional areas. This renovation will result in an office,
a meeting room, a bathroom, and meeting room for demonstrations and research purposes in
The top floor is for the most part unfinished. Finishing the top
floor and attic will create a flat (apartment) on those levels. A circular staircase will
connect the attic level to the rafter level..
Creating the separate levels necessitates the alteration of the exterior facade. The roof
flat requires additional windows. The basement will be provided with a separate entrance.
The implementation of renovation plans is based on the building's current status and
Renovation work requires a significant material and cost investment. Therefore, renovation
planning decisions should be based on a solid technical and architectural foundation.
Analysis of the contruction materials offers concrete directions for the methods of
Samples of the contruction materials which were tested in laboratories and moisture
measurements which were made on location provide indications that isolation of this
moisture will need to be a necessary step in the renovation process. The testing also
indicates that specific materials should be used.
3 Renovation of the Building's Exterior
3. 1 Sealing and Insulation of the Basement Stone Work
Clay particles and plants have penetrated deeply into the stone work. These
components and loosened mortar must be removed by a high pressure water hose and
subsequently swept up with a broom.
The basis for additional renovation work is the correction of areas where larger amounts
of settling of the stonework foundation have occured and the application of an additional
layer of sealing morter.
Different work steps in the area of the foundation floor seal off the cracks between the
foundation and the ascending stonework.
The thick layers which were applied prevent moisture from entering the building.
An insulation greatly reduces the amount of heat that escapes from the building.
||Moisture protection strips protect the insulation from wettness in the soil.
The water runs along the outside of the protection strips down through a drain layer and
is diverted into a drainage pipe.
3. 2 Renovation of the Natural Stone Foundation
Cracks and pieces of broken-off morter throughout the stone work indicate that
loose morter must be removed.
Removing bubbling and loose pieces from the outer surface is accomplished either with high
pressure water or with a sandblaster.
The stone work will be filled in with a special mortar.
After four weeks setting time, the water proofing used in the stonework is set. The amount
of water seepage will be closely monitored to determine the quality of the seal.
3. 3 Roof Renovation
Near the gable and the eaves, the outer plaster is directly connected to the
roof area. Therefore, it is advisable to renovate the chimney top, roof ceiling, the
ledges, the walkways, and the roof's drainage system next.
The tin roofing is then removed and insulating wood fiber sheets are mounted. The sheets
also serve as a shell for the insulation that will be laid between the rafters. Nailed
slats will form the support for the roofing tiles. Special tiles make it possible to
connect the solar panels directly with the roof's structure.
Plastic paneling replaces the brittle paneling on the walkways and the eaves of the
The section of the chimney exposed above the roof was renovated and covered with slate.
3. 4 Installing the Windows
The existing window frames are rotted through and the insulation is
The new windows, made from German pine, should follow the structure of the original
windows for architectural reasons and should significantly increase insulation
||Special properties of the new window glass allow it to use the sun's energy.
During the heating period more solar energy enters the building than heat escapes through
the glass out of the building. The two-layered glass increases its insulation power by
three to four times that of a single-layered glass. The triple-layered glass installed on
the north side of the building increases the insulation to 12 times that of the old window
|The durability of the windows depends on how professionally they
are installed. It is important that no condensation develop between the window frame and
the stonework, because constant moisture leads to rotting of the wood. Next, the windows'
vertical supports will be cleaned in order to produce a smooth surface.
Adhesive sealing strips on the window frames give lasting protection against invading
moisture from outside and inside that would lead to rotting of the window frame.
In the next years, the presence of moisture or heat loss between the window frames and the
stonework will prove the necessity of using the air-tight strips.
Once the window frames have been properly aligned they are anchored to the stonework with
The sealing stripes provide warmth protection and nestle securely between the window frame
and the stonework.
The silicon caulking forms a seal and further prevents the penetration of water vapor.
The wood that was chosen has good insulation and ecological properties. It is easy to work
with and because of its natural properties, it provides aesthetic and architectural
3. 5 Plaster Facade Renovation
The next step of the renovation process is to clean the facade. Air pollution
and loose pieces of plaster are removed. Then every corner of the building gets a plaster
The plaster splints protect the corners from damage, and at the same time help to make the
plaster thick and even. These special sections protect the building corners, door, and
A special salt-absorbing plaster will be applied onto the cleaned plaster surface. This
serves to neutralize the salt in the outer layer of the plaster facade.
After a sufficient binding period a 10-centimeter thick layer of insulating plaster will
be applied to the salt-absorbing plaster in a two-layer process. This layer of plaster
provides good insulation due to the high quantity of air bubbles it contains.
An additional surface plaster, very durable in nature, is added to protect the insulating
layer from damage and moisture.
A layer of paint will also protect the plaster from moisture and provides the proper
4 Renovation of the Building Interior
4. 1 Basement Renovation
Because the basement will house a scientific laboratory, a conference room
and an office, high demands are placed on the quality of the renovation. The interior
plaster and partial concrete flooring must be removed because of the poor nature of the
A layer of concrete will the secure loose and broken stones near the base of the
The installed drainage system leads water out of the building and into a reservoir. The
entire floor will be given a gravel layer covered in foil to serve as a drainage layer.
The concrete flooring applied on top consists of watertight concrete. An additional
moisture barrier protects the floors heating system which will be laid over the concrete.
The interior walls are made of brick and are thoroughly saturated with moisture. A
drilling procedure should inhibit the increase of moisture in the walls.
Now the stonework is sealed from the base until the level of the drill holes. Hydrophobic
liquid poured into funnels attached to the injection tubes penetrates the stonework walls
through the drilled holes.
The walls should be cleaned before plastering.
A special salt neutralizing plaster is applied that will bind existing and subsequent
This special layer of plaster also serves to secure the aesthetic top layer.
A subsequently applied fine plaster seals off the plaster work.
Additional renovation of the laboratory and restroom includes drywall. The floor and
ceiling areas are now fitted with sheet metal anchored with screws. The vertical elements
and door frames are mounted at this time.
After the metal work and the installation module, both sides are planked with special
4. 2 Extension and Renovation of Upper Level
The living area in the top floor will be enlarged by the extension. The ceiling
will be extended to allow for use of more of the upper level of the top floor. An
additional room will be added over the top floor.
The existing rafters prove to be of high quality. They will be reinforced to withstand the
added burden of solar collectors, tiles, sheet metal, insulation and finishing.
The roof insulation is completely insufficient. Based on construction and statistical
reasons we decide to remove the pumice and to install new insulation which surpasses the
requirements of the Insulation Protection Order of 1995.
Cracks in the roof slopes and the windows are eliminated before the insulation is
Sections of metal are screwed into the rafters to provide a foundation for the interior. A
large space is left between the interior wall and the sheet metal that constructs the roof
to be filled with insulating.
The small pieces of insulating material fill up uneven spaces in the rafters and surround
objects such as the pipes running between the rafters.
The transfer of heat between the rafters is inhibited by this insulating material.
The insulation will be applied either through manual pouring or by using a blowing
The living area is only partly finished. New walls to separate the rooms will be built
from sound proof sheets with porous concrete. Near the ceiling the stones will be lead in
a U-Profile made from sheet metal.
Parts of the stone work near the timber work had to be partially replaced. Porous concrete
fits well into the odd shapes and provides heat insulation and sound-proofing.
A layer of insulation added to the stairwell walls prohibits warmth from escaping from the
living area into the stairwell.
Ceilings, as well as old and new walls, are fitted with drywall.
Light separating walls are chosen to create the rooms that will be used as bathrooms and
toilette rooms. A metal framework is anchored to the floor and ceiling.
Pipes for freshwater and sewage, and the supports for the sinks are installed inside the
metal wall frames.
Mounted special plates serve as the appropriate foundation for tiling.
4. 3 Renovation of the Ceilings, Floors, and Installation of
In-floor Heating and Radiators
The floor of the top and ground levels has a "double-t" construction
with a layer of porous concrete in between. A 4-cm thick layer of insulation serves as a
sound barrier for tread noise. A soft-fibered surface covers the noise insulation and is
also the bottom layer for the in-floor heating element.
In order to fulfill research purposes, various types of floorboard and attic heating
systems were installed.
The in-floor heating system, suitable for dry attics, consists of stiff foam layers on
conductive aluminum sheets in which copper pipes will be laid in pre-made channels. The
heat travels from the pipes through the well-conducting aluminum sheets to the drywall
where it is transferred to the floor tiling.
Cement-bound attic plates, laid in two layers serve as the constructive and physical
requirements for a dry attic.
|The in-floor heating system chosen for the tiled section consists of stiff
foam layers with plastic pipes in the channels.
|The tiles that are subsequently added completely enclose the pipes
so that a good transfer of warmth to the flooring tiles is accomplished
The building is equipped with both in-floor and radiator heating out of research
requirements. However, the heating requirements of the house could have been achieved with
4. 4 Floor Tiles
After preparing the top layer of the tiled section of the attic the tiles are
laid using a glue that is suited for floor heating systems. The tiles are designed to
conduct heat and ensure a healthy living environment.
Wallpapering and paints that allow diffusion are required to satisfy the physical
properties desired from the walls and ceilings.
4. 5 Sealing and Air Circulation in the Building
The Blower Door method is used to inspect the building's seal. Leaks in the
walls, roof and ceilings that could lead to the loss of heat and damage of the structure
can in this way be located and filled by an exterior layer of plaster before the internal
renovation has been completed.
For research purposes, three different stationary circulation systems are installed.
Window casements that open and close allow for the necessary exchange of air.
Circulation systems that utilize heat recapturing make use of a portion of the energy from
the interior air. The controlled exchange of air flows through from the system in a radial
bladder. In a cross-plated heat exchanger, the air entering the building is warmed by the
interior escaping from the building.
The third type of circulation system does not conserve heat and is installed near the
5 Energy and Water Use in the Building
5. 1 Energy Use
Solar panels and Caloric technology are available for the production of
warmth energy for the heating and the hot water supply, save energy and relieve the burden
on the environment.
||Solar panels are mounted on the roof facing to the south. Solar panels should
be oriented southward on the roof. Heat from the solar panels collects in the heat
accumulator in the basement where it remains available to heat water and rooms, the
in-floor heating systems and radiators.
A pipe with a 10-centimeter diameter should be installed through the chimney
for exhaust purposes. .
|A large portion of the heat created through the burning of combustibles in old
oil and gas heaters is lost through the chimney. Caloric heaters reuse a portion of the
exhaust heat. Steam in the exhaust condenses in the process, the condensation is then
directed into the channel.
5. 2 Water Use and the Safe Use of Rainwater
Separate distributors for warm water, cold water, and measuring equipment area
installed in each level of the building. In this way, each resident can control his or her
The toilets in the building use rainwater to flush. Pipes lead rainwater into a renovated
container. A pressure pump in the plumbing system between the rainwater collector and the
individual toilet tanks then refills the toilet tank from the container as needed.
||50 percent less fresh water is used, and the sewage system and sewage plants
have less of a burden.
Further benefits of using rainwater appear outside the building. Rainwater
seeps through the corresponding underground honeycombing to provide for a green lawn
surrounding the building.
6 Evaluation of Renovated Condition of Building
The exterior of the building and the grounds are now finished.
The ground floor rooms fulfill the proper conditions for a meeting room, laboratory and
The ground floor is rebuilt and a comfortable living atmosphere has been created.
Building on to the upper level transformed it into an attractive bi-level apartment.
7 Influence of Residents on energy and Water Usage
Preserving the environment through energy and water conservation in
buildings is a well-known theme. This renovated building fulfills the requirements of a
low level energy-using structure because of its insulation and energy utilization systems.
Through the measuring and control systems, the residents can attain information about the
temperature of the rooms and the energy and water usage levels. This allows them have a
dramatic influence on the temperature of the rooms, especially in their absence or at
8 Demonstration and Research
|After appraising the results of the differential pressure tests and
thermographic photographs taken during the finishing stages and after the project's
completion the heat bridges are identified and eliminated
|The measuring equipment installed in the building allow
measurements of the temperature, moisture, radiation, volumetric currents, electrical
energy and pressure of the physical spaces to be captured. The measurements provide a
thorough evaluation of the building and offer a scientific basis for optimizing the
renovation and the system.
The measurements from each floor are transferred through a socket system to a measurement
collection unit. The prepared data can be accessed from here.
The environmental measurements from the local weather station, such as temperature,
humidity, wind, and solar radiation are available for comparative analytical purposes.
Utilizing the documentation from the renovation and the research results, scientists and
industry experts can assess and optimize energy processes in buildings as well as
construction and physical concepts
A brochure about the renovation project that includes the first research
results is currently being developed and can be ordered upon completion.
To order contact :
e-mail: info@ iei.de
Tel.: +49 2762 / 2258
Fax: +49 2174/786270